linear-gradient property CSS Reference



Definition and Usage

The CSS linear-gradient() function creates an <image> which represents a linear gradient of colors. The result of this function is an object of the CSS <gradient> data type. Like any other gradient, a CSS linear gradient is not a CSS <color> but an image with no intrinsic dimensions; that is, it has neither natural or preferred size, nor ratio. Its concrete size will match the one of the element it applies to.

Linear gradients are defined by an axis, the gradient line, with each point on it being of a different color. Perpendicular lines to the gradient-line have one single color, the one of the point on the gradient line.

The gradient line is defined by the center of the box containing the gradient image and by an angle. The color of the gradient is defined by different points, the starting point, the ending point and, in between, optional stop-color points.

The starting point is the point on the gradient line where the color starts. It is defined by the intersection between the gradient line and a perpendicular passing by the box corner which is in the same quadrant.

Similarly the ending point is the point on the gradient line where the final color is reached. It can also be defined by an intersection between the gradient line and a perpendicular line issued by the nearby corner, but is more easily defined as the symmetric of the starting point, when a point reflection with an origin confounded with the center of the box.

These somewhat complex definitions of the starting and ending points lead to an interesting property sometimes called magic corners : the nearby corners of the starting and ending points also have the same color as the respective starting and ending points.

More than just the starting-point and ending-point colors can be specified.  By defining additional color-stop points on the gradient line, the web developer can create a more customized transition between the starting and ending colors, or provide for a multi-color gradient. 

The linear-gradient syntax does not allow for repeating gradients, but by using color-stop points, a similar effect can be achieved.  For true repeating gradients, use the repeating-linear-gradient CSS property.

When the position of a color-stop point is implicitly defined, it is placed half-way between the point that precedes it and the one that follows it.  The position can also be explicitly defined by using a <length> or a <percentage> CSS data type.

Gradients are defined as CSS <image> data types. Therefore they can be used anywhere in CSS where an image data type is required. But, Gecko currently only supports CSS gradients as values of the background-image property, as well as within the shorthand background. For this reason, linear-gradient won't work on background-color and other properties requesting <color>.


Syntax

Formal grammar: linear-gradient(  [ <angle> | to <side-or-corner> ,]? <color-stop> [, <color-stop>]+ )
\=====================/ \====================/
Definition of the gradient line         List of color stops  
where <side-or-corner> = [left | right] || [top | bottom]
and <color-stop>     = <color> [ <percentage> | <length> ]?
linear-gradient( 45deg, blue, red );           /* A gradient on 45deg axis starting blue and finishing red */
linear-gradient( to left top, blue, red);      /* A gradient going from the bottom right to the top left starting blue and finishing red */
linear-gradient( 0deg, blue, green 40%, red ); /* A gradient going from the bottom to top, starting blue, being green after 40% and finishing red */ 

Values

<side-or-corner>
Represents the position of the starting-point of the gradient line. It consists of two keywords: the first one indicates the horizontal side, left or right, and the second one the vertical side, top or bottom. The order is not relevant and each of the keyword is optional. The values to top, to bottom, to left and to right are translated into the angles 0deg, 180deg, 270deg, 90deg respectively. The others are translated into an angle that let the starting-point to be in the same quadrant than the described corner and so that the line defined by the starting-point and the corner is perpendicular to the gradient line. That way, the color described by the <color-stop> will exactly apply to the corner point. This is sometimes called the "magic corner" property. The end-point of the gradient line is the symmetrical point of the starting-point on the other direction of the center box.
<angle>
An angle of direction for the gradient. See <angle>.
<color-stop>
This value is comprised of a <color> value, followed by an optional stop position (either a percentage or a <length> along the gradient axis). Rendering of color-stops in CSS gradients follows the same rules as color-stops in SVG gradients.

Examples

Gradient with multiple color stops

If the first color-stop does not have a <length> or <percentage>, it defaults to 0%. If the last color-stop does not have a <length> or <percentage>, it defaults to 100%. If a color-stop doesn't have a specified position and it isn't the first or last stop, then it is assigned the position that is half way between the previous stop and next stop.

Color-stops must be specified in order. After assigning default values to the first and last stops if necessary, if a color-stop has a specified position that is less than the specified position of any color-stop before it in the list, its position is changed to be equal to the largest specified position of any color-stop before it.

A rainbow made from a gradient
background: linear-gradient(to right, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet);

Repeating a linear gradient

The linear-gradient does not allow repeating gradients. By default, the gradient will stretch to fill the element it is defined on. For this functionality, see repeating-linear-gradient.

Using transparency

Linear with transparency
background-image: linear-gradient(to bottom right, red, rgba(255,0,0,0));

Gradient backgrounds are not affected by background-size if all points and lengths are specified using fixed units (as opposed to percentages or keywords, which are relative to the value of background-size).


Compatibility

Feature Firefox (Gecko) Chrome Internet Explorer Opera (Presto) Safari
Basic support(on background and background-image) 3.6 (1.9.2)-moz
16.0 (16)
10.0 (534.16)-webkit 10.0 11.10-o 5.1-webkit
On any properties that accept <image> Not supported (Yes) NA NA (Yes)
Legacy webkit syntax Not supported 3-webkit Not supported Not supported 4.0-webkit
Legacy from syntax (without to) 3.6 (1.9.2)-moz 10.0 (534.16)-webkit 10.0 11.10-o 5.1-webkit
Standard syntax (using the to keyword) 10.0 (10)-moz
16.0 (16)
26.0 (537.27) 10.0 11.60-o
12.10
supported in WebKit nightlies (537.27)

Relative articles